Manual of Clinical Microbiology


General Approaches for Direct and Indirect Detection and Identification of Fungi*

Last Updated:2023

The frequency with which invasive fungal infections (IFIs) occur has markedly increased over the past decade. The ability to rapidly detect and identify the causative fungal agents is essential for…

Direct Microscopic Examination

The ability to detect fungi in clinical material depends on several factors, including the quality of the specimen that is received into the laboratory. If very small samples are received,…

Detection of Antibodies Targeting Fungal Pathogens

Detection of antibodies targeting fungal pathogens may be useful in a range of IFIs, particularly when they occur in immunocompetent patients; however, these assays may have limited use in significantly…

Fungal Antigen Detection

The main antigen used as a diagnostic marker in commercially available kits for IA is galactomannan (GM), a carbohydrate molecule with a mannose backbone. GM is released from the cell…

(1,3)‐β‐d‐Glucan Detection

(1,3)‐β‐d‐Glucan (BDG) is an integral polysaccharide cell wall component present in the fungal cell wall of most pathogenic fungi, with the notable exception of Cryptococcus, the…

Fungal‐Specific Metabolite Detection

Many fungal metabolites, as well as antigens, have been evaluated for their utility in detecting fungi in clinical specimens. Metabolites that have been assessed include d‐arabinitol…

Nucleic Acid Detection

Nucleic acid detection for diagnosis of fungal infections and identification of the etiological agent has been actively pursued since the early 1990s. Theoretically, this method offers many advantages, including the…

Section Editor: Sean Zhang

Volume Editor: Bobbi S. Pritt

Editors in Chief: Karen C. Carroll and Michael A. Pfaller

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