Manual of Clinical Microbiology


Susceptibility Test Methods: Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi

Last Updated:2023
Antifungal Susceptibility Testing

The groups of antifungal agents licensed for the systemic treatment of invasive fungal infection currently include the polyene amphotericin B and its three lipid formulations; the azoles fluconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole,…

Standardized Broth Dilution Methods for Yeasts

Currently, there are two internationally recognized broth dilution methods for testing yeasts such as Candida spp. Broth microdilution testing (Table 3) has become the most widely used reference…

Yeast Genera Other Than Candida

Although the CLSI and EUCAST methods only provide suggested breakpoints for the most common human‐pathogenic Candida spp. (see Table 1), with certain caveats these methods are broadly suitable…

Special Considerations

Amphotericin B MICs determined by the microdilution methods are clustered between 0.25 and 1.0 mg/liter for 94% of clinical yeast isolates; ≤1.0 mg/liter is often used as a tentative breakpoint…

CLSI and EUCAST Clinical Breakpoints and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Candida spp.

There is now a considerable body of data indicating that standardized antifungal susceptibility testing (38, 40) for Candida spp. and some triazoles, amphotericin B, and the…

Alternative Approaches for Yeasts

Although the CLSI and EUCAST methods for in vitro susceptibility testing were essential for standardization and for improving interlaboratory reproducibility, they may not be feasible methods for testing all organisms…

Standardized Broth Dilution Methods for Molds

Antifungal susceptibility testing of molds is becoming increasingly important due to the range of emerging opportunistic pathogens and the reporting of both innate and emergent resistance among the most common…

Summary and Conclusions

A great deal of progress has been achieved in the field of antifungal susceptibility testing with both yeast and filamentous fungi since testing began in earnest in the early 1980s.…

Section Editor: Sean Zhang

Volume Editor: Bobbi S. Pritt

Editors in Chief: Karen C. Carroll and Michael A. Pfaller

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